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The Secret to a Successful Brand Starts with “Why”

Have you ever wondered why people line up for the latest Apple gadget, but not for a Microsoft one? Why do some brands become more emotionally connected to their customers than others? Why does a 149-year-old brand like Heinz Ketchup have over 84% of the market share in Canada and over 62% in the US? Why do people still want to buy the world a coke? The secret behind the success of these and many other beloved brands lies in the “why.”

An Apple a Day

Consumers don’t need complicated details about your brand, they just want you to make their life better. It’s that simple. Yet brands often want to tell their customers about all the craftsmanship and technology that goes into making their products. They can’t seem to help but talk about all the things that make their product superior, faster, and smarter. Brands that do this are serving their best interests instead of their customer’s desires.

Rest assured, consumers do care that you have the latest, greatest, best quality technology, but don’t bore them with the details. Apple understood this from the beginning. Their products inspire consumers because they’re idiot proof—all you have to do is turn them on.

Steve Jobs didn’t talk about how they built the iPod’s mercury-free, LED-backlit display, nor did he elaborate on its Mac: OS X v10.6.8 system requirements. Instead, he talked about the big “why” of changing the digital world forever. As he said, “the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world are the ones who do.” I guess he was one of the crazy ones, because he and Apple changed the music and the smartphone world forever.

Brands led by a visionary, or who are focused on a specific cause, start from a level of passion for doing something that is both right for their customers and for the world. Not only do customers relate to this approach, they become emotionally invested in these brands.

 

Over 650 Million Bottles of Heinz Ketchup Consumed Every Year

The founder of Heinz, Henry J. Heinz, revealed the company’s secret to success as “doing a common thing uncommonly well.” He was adamant that customers should see what they were getting in every bottle, hence the clear ketchup glass bottle (which was more expensive to make). He insisted on strict quality control, providing their farmers with their tomato seed—6 billion seeds every year. This guaranteed firmer tomatoes that stayed riper longer to provide the ketchup’s trademark thick, rich taste. There’s even a quality specification on the speed at which the ketchup pours from the bottle, set at a maximum of 0.28 miles per hour. If it pours faster, it doesn’t make it to the store shelf.

Few people know the lengths Heinz goes to in the quest for the perfect ketchup to go with your French fries. That’s because Heinz doesn’t inundate you with these details to try to sell their product, they just deliver consistent results that drive consumer loyalty.

 

 

Esquire restaurant critic John Mariani describes Heinz ketchup as, quite simply, “one of the few things in the world brought to such an honest state of perfection.” This is all that people want to know—that the company cares enough to make sure every bottle is perfect.

As a side note, if you tap the bottle where the “57” is on the neck, the ketchup will come out quicker. Skip hitting the bottom of the bottle—that’s for amateurs.

Happiness in a Coke Bottle

Coca-Cola understands the magic in the bottle. They stay away from the product attributes, focusing instead on how their product makes you feel. They have successfully appealed to the consumer’s heart and not their stomach.

Jim Stengel, author of Grow: How Ideals Power Growth and Profit at the World’s Greatest Companies, said that “everything they do is inspired by this idea of, How do we promote, develop and create happiness?” They have never lost focus on why they exist, even when they introduced the failed New Coke. Stengel further explains that “they never forget why they started and where they came from, which means a lot to consumers.”

Richard Laermer, author of Punk Marketing, says the secret to Coca-Cola’s brand is its ability to transfer adults back to their childhood, “a time people relate to being happy and worry-free.” Every Coke can give you a sugar high, but Coca-Cola can also provide a feeling of warmth and nostalgia. They have successfully tied the brand to sentimental thoughts and stayed clear of being informative.

 

Gillette, Always on the Edge

Gillette has dominated the razor and blades market since 1901, with nearly 65% of the global market share in 2017. The brand started with the single safety razor and, over time, moved towards multiple-bladed razors. Gillette has been relentless in product innovations that are heavily patent protected, while pouring funds into sports marketing and advertising to justify their hefty price tag. From the beginning, Mr. Gillette understood the brand’s purpose was to transform men from prehistorical brutes to civilized males. As a 1910 advertisement eloquently stated, “The country’s future is written in the faces of young men.”

It wasn’t until the late 1980s that the Gillette brand decisively started articulating the brand’s why with the slogan “The best a man can get.” This purpose was brought to life by emotional images of men as devoted sons, fathers, husbands and boyfriends, all devoid of facial hair. For more on the Gillette brand voice, click here.

This doesn’t mean, however, that they haven’t occasionally fallen into the technology trap of explaining the “what” and “how” of their cutting-edge, stainless steel, micro, anti-friction, Pro-Glide, FlexBall razor that can cut hair one-fortieth of a millimeter shorter than its competition.

Today, the Gillette brand is under attack by lower-priced upstarts like Dollar Shave Club and Harry’s, but if they keep true to their follicle roots of “why,” they should continue to protect their competitive edge.

 

Dove Soap Floats Above the Rest

Since its launch in 1964, the Dove soap brand has always used its unique selling proposition of their 1/4 moisturizing cream formulation. It wasn’t until the late 1990s that the brand realized that the “what” wasn’t keeping the brand ahead of the competition. In 2004, Dove finally understood the importance of a higher purpose and launched the “real truth about beauty” campaign that targeted women. To get to this realization, they probed deeper into the emotional insights, surpassing the functional benefit of 1/4 moisturizing cream to a more inspiring discussion of what defines beauty. In the end, they started a movement about self-esteem. Advertising Age reported that Dove’s sales increased to $4-billion in 2014, compared with $2.5-billion just a decade earlier. Moving from “what” (¼ moisturizing cream) to “why” (beauty) is a beautiful investment.

Toms Shoes Firmly Planted in “Why”

“Start something that matters,” is Blake Mycoskie’s motto and the foundation to his shoe and accessories company, Toms. His business concept is firmly planted in the “why,” and has sparked many companies to adopt the buy-one-give-one business model. His advice is to “stay true to what you believe.”

“Why” is the Secret to a Successful Brand

Making a difference in people’s lives and explaining the “why” seems to be the starting point for all successful brands. To elevate the purpose beyond the functional wants and needs of a consumer to a higher-good of fulfilment, identity, affiliation and societal or environmental altruism is the ultimate key to success.

It is this passion of “why” that brands do what they do that gives customers a reason to embrace the product. In the book Starting with Why, author Simon Sinek explains that successful brands communicate the whys (beliefs, causes, visions) before they communicate what they do and how they do it. Martin Luther King, Jr. said “I have a dream” not “I have a plan.” It’s all about the why.

Allen Adamson, author of BrandDigital, BrandSimple, and The Edge, says “A company that looks at its brand and asks not simply what promise does it make, but what purpose does it serve, to its customers and its shareholders, and brings this purpose to life through every customer experience will be the company most likely to beat its competition. When an employee can answer the question ‘Why am I here?’ in a positively motivating way, everyone benefits.”

A brand purpose must be simple and clearly understood by everyone in the company, so they can emulate it every day. It must be single-minded in its focus, and speak with one voice. It also helps to have a leader who is passionate about what the brand stands for and keeps everyone focused on what matters.

Start asking “why” your brand should be above the rest, and results are sure to follow.

 

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Laughter Is the Shortest Distance Between Brand and Customer

Five ways to use humor to build a brand.

Building your brand on humor is no laughing matter. In fact, this choice can be a high-risk (but high-reward) branding option. Laughter is the obvious outcome, but humor also creates a positive emotional relationship between a brand and its customers. Humor can cut through the clutter and go viral in seconds—because funny attracts eyeballs. People reward clever, creative and witty humor by watching and sharing it. Humor can revitalize an old offer or make an ordinary product extraordinary overnight—and it can make you into a brand that people want to be associated with.

 

Funny Theory

I quickly found that looking for the secret sauce of what makes things funny wasn’t much fun at all. E.B. White had it right when he mused that “analyzing humor is like dissecting a frog. Few people are interested and the frog dies of it.”

Frog or no frog, Dr. Peter McGraw and Joel Warner wrote the book The Humor Code. In the book, they developed the Benign Violation Theory, which states that two simultaneous conditions are needed to make something funny. First, it must violate the way we think the world should work and second, it must be benign enough that it does so in a way that’s not threatening. This is the fine line of what is funny or in downright bad taste.

A master of Benign Violation is comedian Jerry Seinfeld, who has the innate talent of pointing out outrageous funny things (violation) in everyday life (benign). My favorite example is the episode where Mr. Pitt eats a Snickers bar with a knife and fork.

Laughing Matters

Jack Schafer, Ph.D., a writer for Psychology Today, says “laughter releases endorphins, which make us feel good about ourselves and others. This good feeling creates a bond between two people and imbues a sense of togetherness.” Brands that incorporate humor in their branding strategy can increase their likeability.

Unfortunately, I can’t find any significant research to support this claim, except to say that intrinsically we all do business and build relationships with people we like. Rohit Bhargava, author of Likeonomics, says we are living in a world where brand believability is very low. Consumers are bombarded daily with corporate speak, half-truths, or biased messages. For the sake of survival, they are ambivalent or negative to these messages as a default—Bhargava calls this the “likeability gap.” To bridge this gap, brands must build trust, be relevant and be unselfish in a timely and simple fashion. Doing something different, like using humor, can make a brand relevant and can create significant impact in a world of sameness and brand parity.

 

Funny Attractions

Humor generates big dollars in the entertainment industry. From 1995 to 2017, Statista movie box office revenue data shows that the comedy genre rakes in a total of $42 billion, second only to adventure movies. Comedy has continued to grow over recent years, with over 17.6 million people visiting a comedy club in 2016. That’s an increase of 10 percent since 2014! A contributing factor to this influx is the mass broadcasting of comedy specials and routines on Netflix and YouTube (where comedy is the 5th biggest channel), and popular live events like Montreal’s Just For Laughs Festival, that attracts over two million spectators each year. The rise in comedy popularity is particularly true for younger viewers—according to a recent study by NAPTE/Content First and the Consumer Electronics Association, comedy is the top genre watched regularly by 74 percent of Millennials (vs. 70 percent for Gen Xers, and 68 percent for Boomers).

The attractiveness of humor also applies to marketing. A quarter of television commercials are classified as humorous and, of the top 10 most-watched ads of 2017 on YouTube, four of them are based on humor.

 

Brand Attractions

The main reason humor is used to build a brand is two-fold: humor can attract attention quickly and can enhance brand likability overnight. But this doesn’t guarantee success. Ace Metrix conducted an extensive research study on the Impact of Humor in Advertisements (2012), and found that the “keys to effectiveness are relevance and information.”

There are five primary ways humor can be used to build a brand:

1. Bonding

Humor can be used to bring together like-minded people under a halo of fun. Humor can bring out the unique club mentality present in celebration, without the fear of elitism. Coca-Cola, for example, is a mastermind at creating a warm and funny connection with their consumers. It must be all that sugar they put into the drink!

As well as conveying emotional information about oneself, laughter elicits similar emotions in others and therefore serves a bonding function. If laughter serves a social bonding function, it should be no surprise that it also serves to increase a person or brand’s likability.

 

2. Releasing Tension

Humor can be an easy way to address a difficult conversation or sensitive subject matter like insurance, banking, or personal hygiene. Somehow, the toilet tickles many-a-brand’s funny bone. Humor, when used with sensitivity, can be very successful, and even potty humor has a time and place (most likely in a boy’s locker room).

GEICO is a great example of taking a sensitive subject (insurance) and transforming it into must-watch TV ads. Then there is Aflac’s famous quacky and wacky duck, who helped to elevate the Aflac brand to one of the top 25 brands in 2015, based on the annual SMB Insights Study conducted by The Business Journals.

3. Attraction

How do you take a 70-year brand heritage of Old Spice and make it relevant to not only young men, but also to the women who purchase products for the men in their lives? Women are responsible for over 50% of body wash sales, so hooking them as a demographic is vital. Eric Baldwin, Executive  Creative Director at Wieden+Kennedy (the agency behind the Old Spice brand transformation) said: “When you are saying ‘Listen to us tell you about body wash and deodorant and we will entertain you,’ you’d better make sure that is exactly what you do: entertain the hell out of them.” And that is exactly what Old Spice has been doing since “The Man Your Man Could Smell Like” was debuted in 2010.

4. Rivals

How does the little brand take on Goliath who has more market share, more brand awareness, more brand recognition, and deep pockets to keep it that way? Create a cult phenomenon using humor! It’s easier said than done, but many brands have succeeded. Humor can also be used to avert potential detractors.

If used correctly, humor can be a clever and original way to communicate tons of information in a playful and entertaining matter. One great example is the Dollar Shave Club.

5. Entertainment

For those brands looking to capture younger audiences, it’s all about entertaining and keeping those attention-deficit consumers engrossed in nonsensical brand stories. In a study How Humor in Advertising Works by Prof. Dr. Martin Eisend at the Universitat Viadrina Frankfurt (2011), it is cited that humor may help overcome weaknesses in advertising messages. Skittles is a great example of this type of brand humor in its Taste the Rainbow commercials, of which I am not their target audience (thank heavens!).

Last Laugh

If you want to wrap your brand with humor, you need to understand what type of humor fits your brand. Are you looking for the silly giggle like a school kid? The nervous and uncomfortable chuckle? The derisive snort? The joyous cackle? The big contagious hearty belly laugh? Or the soft, suppressed chortle?

The bigger the laughter, the higher the risk and the higher the potential of being divisive, but sometimes the reward is worth that risk. Sometimes, though, being too funny can have the opposite effect than you intend. There is always a brand that crosses the line and takes funny to a non-benign place. There are also those brands that are so funny and outrageous that the consumer only remembers the joke but has no idea who or what the brand was. Robin Evans, in his book Production and Creativity in Advertising, coined the phrase “the vampire effect,” where the humor or spokesperson overshadows the brand message. The moral of this story is to keep your humor on message, to help build up instead of detracting from your brand.

Here is a Wrigley commercial that crossed the benign line, to the point that it was taken off air because of so many complaints.

 

Final Punchline

A brand’s sense of humor should come from a strong sense of who the brand is, what it stands for, and how their customers perceive it—both today and into the future. If your brand humor comes across as authentic and genuine, people will follow you and will give some leeway to screw up. In today’s world of speed, personalization and relevance humor can cut corners in production values and can capture large audiences, even if your products are boring. Humor is also about timing and context as opposed to polish. If you take no risks at all, you’ll never be in any danger of ever making anyone laugh.

 

The headline to this article is an adaptation from the original quote “Laughter is the shortest distance between two people” by Danish comedian Victor Borge (1909-2000).
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The Best 2017 Brand Campaigns

It’s that time of the year when marketing and branding experts determine which campaigns should be recognized as the best 2017 brand campaigns. For your convenience I have searched the internet for the “Best Lists” from such experts as Adweek, Marketingweek, Spredfast, Digital Marketing Institute, Brandwatch, AdAge and Forbes Agency Council.

My analysis isn’t terrible scientific as most of the lists are wildly subjective. Looking across the lists there are only a few campaigns that get repeated nominations among the experts. There was five campaigns that stood out above the rest.

Purpose over Profits

A common theme among many of these campaigns was a focus on a higher purpose and less about selling their brand. Many are recognizable brands that have successfully tapped into the global anxiety of uncertainty and unrest. A world without a clear future. There is a serious tone in all of these campaigns void of any humour except for Halo Top`s (The Perfect Pint) campaign.

Desire to Engage

These campaigned aren`t about a 30 second television commercial but a fully integrated campaign with social engagements in the millions that reached beyond most expectations. The secret ingredient in all of these campaigns was the social buzz or fire that they all created both positive and negative. A true sign of a campaign that matters.

Enjoy and have a very happy and prosperous New Year.

 

The Top 5 Best 2017 Brand Campaigns

 

1. Heineken – Worlds Apart #OpenYourWorld

This campaign resonated with a number of the experts. And I don`t disagree. I found this real-life social experiment riveting. Heineken brought together people from opposite ends of the spectrum and put them into various team-building activities, before unveiling their strong conflicting viewpoints. They then had the choice to share a Heineken and discuss their differences or leave the room. I won`t spoil the ending.

Heineken received plenty of free publicity including some negative backlash but they also saw sales volume increase 3.9% in the first half of 2017. The 4:25 minute video on Youtube has received over 14.6 million views so far.

 

2. The New York Times – The Truth is Hard to Find

Today, the newspaper business isn’t a happy place. If it’s not Donald Trump threatening journalism, it’s overall declining revenues. The New York Times launched a campaign to declare why journalism matters and its role in holding power accountable and ultimately delivering the truth (most of the time).

The YouTube commercial has over 15.7 million views since it first aired on the Academy Awards in February. But more importantly The New York Times has seen a record level of digital subscribers of over 300 thousand in the first quarter of 2017.

 

3. State Street Global Advisors – Fearless Girl

On March 7th  a small girl of just 4 feet appeared before the iconic Charging Bull in the heart of New York`s financial district which stands at 11 feet. The day before International Women’s Day. Courageously she stands in deviance against the beast that represents male capitalism.

Sculpted by Kristen Visbal, the girl statue was commissioned by agency McCann New York for State Street Global Advisors (SSGA) to symbolise the power of women in leadership. Planting this meek girl statue of 250 pounds against the beast of 7,100 pounds created an instant global media storm. Like any visceral campaign it comes with its detractors including a $5 million lawsuit settlement against parent company State Corp. for alleging it underpaid women and minorities. (Best to have your own house in order before you start pointing fingers as others!)

Fearless Girl won 18 Cannes Lions awards, including the Titanium Grand Prix in the Glass Lions, which honours marketing creativity that transcends traditional categories such as media, film or radio. It was also praised by the jury for advocating gender equality.

 

4. Halo Top – “The Perfect Pint” or “Eat The Ice Cream” (experts couldn’t agree on one)

AdAge describes Halo Top ice cream brand as a “consumer-driven brand based on a quality product, evangelical consumers and clever, grassroots marketing…” This young five year old company has built its brand on a focused social media strategy surpassing the ice cream giants of Ben & Jerry`s and Häagen-Daazs.  They are a true threat to the established brands with sales increases of over 2,500 percent in 2016 and 1,656 percent in the 52 weeks ended Nov. 5, to nearly $298.6 million, according to IRI, a Chicago-based market research firm. “The perfect Pint” was the first traditional campaign they launched just prior to Fourth of July holiday. This video has garnered over 14.4 million views since release.

More recently they launched a longer-format spot for theatre and online advertising. Tim Nudd, creative editor at Adweek describes the spot as a “grimly amusing, Kubrick-esque robot apocalypse” perfect as a horror-movie trailer. Halo Top Founder and CEO Justin Woolverton said his brand had “never done anything this off-the-wall before.”

The sales would indicate a double hitter but the jury is this out on understanding where the brand image is really going.

 

5. Nike – #Breaking2

Nike is a brand that urges its customers to push their limits, and this campaign does this in spades.

They sponsored and challenged three athletes: Lelisa Desisa, Eliud Kipchoge and Zersenay Tadese to run the first sub two-hour marathon wearing Nike`s new Zoom Vaporfly Elite racing shoe. The event took place at the Formula 1 racetrack in Monza, Italy on May 6th and was live-streamed on social media.

Nike also partnered with National Geographic to produce the Breaking2, a 55 minute documentary that has 1.5 million views. Unfortunately, Kenya’s Olympic champion marathoner Eliud Kipchoge missed the goal by just :25 seconds. Despite not beating the two-hour mark, #Breaking2 was a PR success, receiving worldwide media coverage generating almost 85,000 mentions on social media in two days.

 

Honourable Mention

  1. IKEA – Augmented reality app: Ikea Place
  2. Wendy`s – #NuggsForCarter (winner of four 2017 Cannes Lions awards)
  3. Airbnb – Super Bowl ad titled “We Accept”
  4. Heinz – Pass the Heinz a campaign directly from Madmen
  5. Patagonia`s – Brand activism in protecting public land

 

What was your most memorable 2017 brand campaign?

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Mind over Mouth – How Brands Go Beyond The Tongue

Where does the taste of a brand fit? You guessed it, in the mouth. But even if your brand can’t fit into your customer’s mouth, this article may still provide you with wisdom about this unique portal to human consumption. The taste of any brand is more about what you think a brand is than what you think you experience.  Hold that thought as we move on.

The Tongue

The tongue does all the heavy lifting. If it’s not busy articulating a verb or noun, it’s busy moving food and drink around in our mouth. The tongue has over 10,000 taste buds (the little bumps on your tongue) which helps distinguish between sweet, sour, salty, bitter and savory (also known as umami). On its own, it can only decipher basic elements of taste. But to realize its full potential, it requires other senses like smell, texture and temperature. Taste is really the summation of the tongue and nose (if not influenced by our eyes), which our brain connects, and leads our emotional unity to our experience. This is the sweet spot where we know, in branding, is ripe for manipulation and trickery.

Howard Moskowitz once said, “the mind knows not what the tongue wants.” And Moskowitz should know, as a well-known market researcher and psychophysicist. He was made famous by author Malcolm Gladwell in his New Yorker article titled “The Ketchup Conundrum” and his TedTalk called “Choice, happiness and spaghetti sauce.” A perfect video to watch on a Friday night. Gladwell recounts Moskowitz reinventing spaghetti sauce through his research where he discovered there were three main sauces: plain, spicy and extra chucky. The market place only offered plain and spicy spaghetti sauce at the time. Moskowitz’s customer, Campbell Soup Kitchen, used this information and introduced Prego extra chucky spaghetti sauce that made over $600 million in the first 10 years. Moskowitz certainly understood the secret to that sauce.

Taste Test

The most memorable and successful taste test was the legendary Pepsi Challenge, which started in 1975. This simple tactic put Pepsi on the map and kicked Coca Cola off their game with their introduction of the New Coke blunder. Years after, scientist continued to ponder what role taste has in building a brand.

While we believe the ultimate criteria for liking a drink or food is its taste, we are certainly influenced throughout the brand experience by extrinsic cues like packaging, labels, the brand story, the environmental situation, as well as the intrinsic product attributes, like texture, smell, appearance and perceived quality (price).

In a 2013 blind taste test research study between Coke and Pepsi conducted by Dr. N. Ramanjaneyalu, C. Asangi and V. Kadabi at Karnatak University in India, found that only 37% of respondents could successfully identify Coca Cola through taste or a lucky guess. They concluded that building the right brand image and positioning is just as important as the taste.

The Brain

Malcolm Gladwell, in his book Blink, echoes a similar conclusion where he explains that people prefer a sweeter drink (characteristics of Pepsi) in a sip test but generally not necessarily in glass size. He also goes on to talk about the importance of “sensation transference,” a phrase coined by scientific researcher Louis Cheskin, who said people’s perceptions and emotional attachments to the aesthetics of the product goes beyond just the taste of the product.

Neuroscientists Lauren Atlas and Tor Wager’s research on cognitive neuroscience concluded that expectations and beliefs play a pervasive role in the workings of the brain. What this means is expectations can influence those things we are knowingly aware of, like our loyalty and familiarity to a brand. Consciously and unconsciously we are collecting information and analyzing our surroundings and assessing what we think we like and don’t like.

 

Tasteless

Gil Morrot, a wine researcher at the National Institute for Agronomic Research in Montpellier, found that the simple act of adding an odorless red dye to a glass of white wine was able to fool a panel of tasters, who later described the wine as a true red wine with tasting notes of cherry, dark fruit and cedar.

It’s no surprise that the top five beer manufactures in US spent approximately $1.6 billion in advertising in 2016, especially if beer preference is not driven completely by taste. Bottle water is another great example of brand-first, tasteless-water second. (Check out my article The Power of a Brand).

In a study conducted at Stanford and Johns Hopkins, their researchers tested the effect of branding on taste preferences in young children. The 95 children aged 3-5 were given identical food, except one choice came in McDonald’s packaging and the other was in plain-white packaging. All of the food came from McDonald’s, except for the carrots. Which one do you think the kids liked best? No brainer. McDonald’s was chosen hands-down, including the carrots that they don’t actually sell. Interesting to also note that the preferences for the McDonald’s branded food increased with both the frequency of McDonald’s consumption and the number of TV sets in the home of each kid.

Taste Matters

I remember the day McDonald’s coffee tasted like merde! (pardon my French). In 2006, McDonald’s upgraded is coffee from a generic, non-descript coffee, to a darker-roast, Arabica, premium coffee they called “Full Bean Coffee.” I recall people walking into the office at the time with their extra-large McDonald’s to-go-cup saying the coffee tasted great, even better than Tim Hortons. They were happy they saved cash and got a free muffin on the side. This was the start of the coffee wars with Starbucks. Within a year McDonald’s coffee sales climbed 20% in a market where coffee sales are over $30 billion. During that time they gave away a lot of free coffee. Why? To demonstrate that their coffee did taste great because taste does matter.

Taste is one of the most important factors influencing consumers’ preference for choosing one food and beverage brand over another. But we should not be so naïve to think that taste is the only discerning factor unless, its Heinz’s ketchup—the perfectly balanced condiment with the right amount of tangy sweet tomato and salty goodness, with pleasant sour notes and a buttery umami finish. Even with a 62% market share lead in US (84% in Canada) this brand doesn’t rely only on taste. The Heinz brands spent approximately $530 million on advertising in 2013, including securing a Heinz’s ketchup ad in the 2016 Super Bowl (which isn’t cheap). Most recently Heinz‘s ketchup launched a brilliant advertising campaign inspired (actually a complete rip-off) from a Mad Men episode.

Final Tasting Notes

We understand the mouth’s role within our complex sensory system. It’s integral in how we interpret taste, and also how we define our likes and dislikes. We also know it has its limitations, and in the end, is overruled by our brain’s desire to bring it all together.  So when positioning a brand that has strong oral opportunity, we can’t put all the pressure on the tongue to carry us through. By ensuring multiple sensory stimulation, only then will the tongue feel affirmation in what it’s experiencing. Now how you choose to influence this experience will leave your brand tasting bitter or sweet.

 

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A Brand with Feelings

“I’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.”

Maya Angelou

 

Maya Angelou’s life lesson is something we have the pleasure of taking solace in, and it’s what inspired looking at brands with feelings.  She understood the power of emotion with an audience, and I’ve dug a little deeper in this article to further articulate the ways brands can use emotion to build deeper customer relationships.

 

There are 8 basic emotions – which ones does your brand focus on?

It seems that the subject of determining how many emotions there are was started way back in the 4th century B.C. by the philosopher Aristotle, and explored much later by Charles Darwin. Most recently psychologists have concluded that there are anywhere from four to eight basic emotions.

In 1978 Dr. Paul Ekman, with the help of W. Friesen, developed the first and only comprehensive tool for objectively measuring facial movement – the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Since then there have been over 70 others studies confirming the same set of results of seven universal facial expressions of emotions – anger, contempt, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise.

Psychologist Robert Plutchik developed the famous wheel of emotions which identifies eight basic emotions – joy, sadness, trust, disgust, fear, anger, surprise, and anticipation. His theory starts with these basic emotions then blossoms out to multiply variations creating a wide spectrum of emotions with opposing relationships.

Kendra Cherry author of Everything Psychology Book said, “The basic emotions, however many there really are, serve as the foundation for all the more complex and subtle emotions that make up the human experience.” There is some compelling evidence that shows consumers use emotions rather than information to evaluate brands. Emotions also create deeper and more visceral impressions that have impact on long-term memory.

Emotions are complex but for the purpose of building a brand based on feelings, we used Plutchik’s eight basic emotions.

 

Negative Emotions

Most companies try to stay clear of associating their brand to negative emotions. But some brands have been very successful in differentiating their brand with the contentious emotions of disgust, sadness, anger and fear.

 

Disgust

Disturbing graphic images on cigarette packs is a great example of using disgust to build the brand of anti-smoking. Gone are the days of the iconic Marlboro man, the ultimate American masculine cowboy brand, which drove Marlboro to the number one tobacco brand in the world. I have read that several actors who portrayed the Marlboro man over the years have rode off into the sunset prematurely due to smoking-related diseases–talk about disgusting. Dr. Ellen Peters, who conducted a research study on the effectiveness of smoking warning labels and graphic images with 244 smokers, says, “The images definitely did stir their emotions, but those emotions led them to think more carefully about the risks of smoking and how those risks affected them.”

Another brand that serves up a spoon of disgust is the famous Canadian cough medicine Buckley’s with the slogan “It tastes awful. And it works.”

But the most disgusting advertising for a brand has to go to OXY Face Wash with their series of zit popping videos. Say no more, the images speak for themselves!

 

Sadness

Is sadness the new happy? Does it leave a mark deeper than joy? Making people cry seems to be many brand’s objective these days. Take a look at all the holiday epic stories of lonely and sad people. The U.K. retailer brand John Lewis is built on pulling consumers’ heartstrings. But some would say that we can’t be happy all of the time so there is an authenticity in trying to get to a deeper brand engagement. Several insurance companies have cornered the market for ‘sad-vertising’ such as Thai Life Insurance (Unsung Hero), MetLife (My dad’s story) and Nationwide (Dead Boy).

 

 

Anger

Making people mad to buy a brand seems counterproductive but it is used to create an action or to make a strong statement. If you want to change a perception or get people to take action, anger can be a very persuasive tool. Generally, we feel angry when we see a person or a helpless animal hurt, or a major injustice being enacted.

Sadly, terrorist groups like ISIS have used this emotion effectively to build their brand. “They’re very good at branding,” said J.M. Berger, co-author of the book ISIS: The State of Terror. They have a complete visual look with a black flag, distinctive clothing, black masks and identical weapons. They use brutal violence against innocent people and public executions to generate widespread anger which also appeals to a small niche of supporters who want to take up their cause.

 

After the Great Recession, many brands tried to take advantage of frustrated and angry consumers affected by hard times by emulating further antagonism. Eastman Kodak did a rant about overpriced inkjet printer ink (I actually purchased a Kodak printer based on this fact). Post’s Shredded Wheat Cereal declared “Innovation is not your friend,” Miller High Life showed their support towards blue-collar customers and Harley-Davidson condemned “The stink of greed and billion-dollar bankruptcies” to align with their customers.

 

 

The most unique brand campaign I have seen that successfully angered its target audience was a simple billboard advertising that said: TEXT AND DRIVE with the company logo Wathan Funeral Home. The outraged and upset viewers went to the funeral home’s website to voice their angry but were surprised to find that it was a PSA to get people to stop texting and driving. Angry with a happy ending.

 

 

Fear

Every brand has a call to action and in many cases, depicts a sense of urgency to respond. But brands would tend to prefer a positive experience and keep as far away from risk as possible. But there are brands who thrive with their use of fear, like Greenpeace. They have been effective in shutting down major projects and changing their prey’s business practices by way of fear mongering. They take mere possibilities and translate them into fearful statements, such as “Our health is threatened by climate change. Malaria, asthma, encephalitis, tuberculosis, leprosy, dengue fever and measles are all expected to become more common.”

 

 

President Donald Trump’s success is attributed to building his brand on fear. Alex Altmen, a Washington correspondent for TIME magazine said, “No President has weaponized fear quite like Trump. He is an expert at playing to the public’s phobias.” Barry Glassner, a sociologist at Lewis & Clark College and the author of The Culture of Fear, says Trump “is a master” at creating fear. “His formula is very clean and uncomplicated: Be very, very afraid,” says Glassner. I repeat be very afraid.

A study published in the Journal of Consumer Research demonstrated that consumers who experienced fear while watching a film felt a greater affiliation with a present brand than those who watched films evoking other emotions, like happiness, sadness or excitement. I believe this goes back to our basic instincts of survival.

So you see how negative emotions can successfully build a brand, but caution cannot be underscored enough. Graeme Newell, marketing consultant, speaker, and founder of 602 Communications says negative emotions can be a powerful tool to elevate a brand’s message, as long as they’re not delivered too bluntly and you must leave the audience with a positive takeaway. Greenpeace’s continuous use of fear has lost some value over time and has created its own challenges. How long can you cry “wolf” to get people to mobilize your brand?

 

Positive Emotions

As character Don Draper said in a Mad Men episode, “Advertising is based on one thing: happiness.” This is the territory many brands navigate using the emotions of joy, trust, surprise and anticipation.

 

Trust

Without trust the financial industry doesn’t work. In essence a five dollar bill or hundred dollar bill is the same simple piece of paper with different numbers on them, but the buying power is significantly different thanks to trust.  No surprise that the business and financial services industry needs trust to operate. Trust is integral to the success of all brands but foundational for those brands built on faith and intangible, complex components.

Generally, the emotion of trust becomes super important for a brand if it has broken this bond with the customer. I am sure VW, Toyota, and BP are working on this emotion extensively today.

In the UK’s 2015 Consumer Trust in Brands report, they state that food brands have one of the highest trust levels—its important to have repeat customers who aren’t sick or dying from eating your product. That is exactly what happened with Maple Leaf Foods Inc. in 2008, when they produced listeria tainted luncheon meats that killed 22 people and sickened 35 others. Sales were immediately hit by a 50% decrease but was only down 15% two months later.

“The very first thing that must happen in these incidents is acknowledgment, apologies, and action from the CEO,” says Hamish McLennan, CEO of Young & Rubicam. Maple Leaf Foods CEO Michael McCain felt the company’s transparency and immediate reaction in taking responsibility for the crisis helped win back customers. Morgen Witzel’s article, Maple Leaf Food’s response to a crisis, states, “The trust built in the days after the onset of the crisis laid the foundation for its eventual turnaround.” Today, I don’t think there is any trust issue facing Maple Leaf Foods thanks to Mr. McCain’s conviction to making things right and not listening to his lawyers.

Humanizing your brand helps build trust but you must foster an authentic and lasting connection with your customers to get there.

 

Joy

What brand do you immediately think of when you hear the word “joy”? Think of joy as a sudden burst of happiness on a high. Does “Joy in every bottle” ring a bell?

 

 

Most people are always on a quest to experience more joy in their lives and looking for those small indulgences of pleasure. Many brands have found the sweet spot, such as Starbucks, McDonald’s, Campbell’s Soup, Kraft Mac & Cheese, Zappos, Facebook – “likes”, and Ferrero Rocher chocolates to name a few.

 

Surprise

A pleasant surprise is always appreciated by consumers and can be leveraged across all consumer touch points (social, events, in-store, advertising, mobile, etc.).

In a social listening study conducted by DraftFCB (now known as FCB or Foote, Cone & Belding), using W. Gerrod Parrott of Georgetown University’s emotional framework (Anger, Love, Sorrow, Joy, Fear, and Surprise), they found “surprise” as a distant sixth place in association with brands. So there is room for brand differentiation in using this emotion.

MasterCard has been running their “Priceless” campaign for over 17 years  and in 2014 they introduced “Priceless Surprises” with the goal of surprising cardholders when they least expect it. For example meeting Justin Timberlake, Gwen Stefani or VIP tickets to special events. There is a strong emotional element in watching a fan connect with a star and MasterCard #PricelessSurprises made it happen. Raja Rajamannar, CMO of MasterCard said, “The success of Priceless is driven by the campaign’s ability to create emotion, influence behavior, unite people and touch upon consumer passions.” Their website says that over 97,867 cardholders have experienced a surprise so far. I’m still waiting for a surprise that doesn’t include 18% when I check my credit card bill!

 

GoPro on a smaller scale had a campaign called “Everything We Make Giveaway” where every day one person wins everything they make. In the last five years they have given away 1,500 cameras and $4 million of GoPro gear. Don’t get too excited this campaign is no longer on.

For the last five years WestJet Airlines has implemented their “Christmas Miracle” by surprising a select group of customers or potential customers. In 2016, they surprised the residents of Fort McMurray, Alberta who were impacted by the devastating wildfires with a special “Snowflake Soiree”. Everyone who attended was given a free WestJet ticket.

 

Anticipation

I am sure you have been anxiously anticipating this last emotion. Researchers have found that people experience more intense emotions around anticipating future events/opportunities than remembering those in the past.  Booking a holiday is a great example of a positive and powerful emotion as a person waits for the exciting trip. High-end cruise liners have perfected the art of creating excitement with cruise planners and special updates prior to embarking.

Sandals Resorts understand the importance of anticipation with their beautifully stunning, natural blue and turquoise oceans and clear sky images, but more importantly, keeping the excitement growing with their social media activities. Tiffany Mullins, Social Media Manager says the Sandals Resorts “strategy is to evoke an emotion with every single social media post.” Not only are they humanizing the brand but their social media presence is creating a virtual vacation experience in advance of the actual vacation. Brilliant.

The Apple brand is an expert on contemplating the future and having their customers emotionally engaged beyond their current technology and living in anticipation of the next generation, like the iPhone 8 soon to be released. Each version is a stepping stone to further deepen the brand loyalty or cult-like following.  Apple is notorious for their pre-launch hype, limited availability, reorders and long lineups on launch day, only to be repeated again within another 12 – 18 months. Here we go again.

 

 

Brand Feelings – Emotional Branding

Harvard Business School professor Gerald Zaltman says that 95% of our purchase decision making takes place in the subconscious mind, a place where emotions are king. If you are going to engage in emotional branding, understand how and where you want to connect to your customers so you can consistently build on every touchpoint.

As William Gelner, Chief Creative Officer of 180 explains, “We live such digitally switched-on, always-plugged-in lives, and yet we still also somehow feel disconnected from people. As human beings, we’re looking for true human connection, and I think that emotional storytelling can help bridge that gap.”

Pick your emotion(s) and start building your emotional brand story today, every step of the way.