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Brands in Pink

It’s not just a colour. It’s a state of mind.

The colour pink is a unique and somewhat controversial colour that is loaded with meaning and emotions. Dr. Veronika Koller, a professor and researcher at Lancaster University who studied how people interpret the colour pink, says that pink contains more meanings than any other colour. This is a respectful summation of this revolutionary colour. If history has anything to tell us, the colour pink has a lot of opportunity left in it in the world of branding.

 

The Colour Pink

Christina Olsen, director of the University of Michigan, Museum of Art, says the colour pink isn’t part of the electromagnetic spectrum so we aren’t seeing actual wavelengths of pink light but “an extra –spectral color, which means other colors must be mixed to generate it.” The primary two colours to make pink is red and white but it is yellow and blue tones that form a wide spectrum of pink colours. Wikipedia has identified over 46 notable shades of the colour pink (where as blue has over 73). In the ranking of popular colours pink is listed as number four behind blue, black and grey.

Alice Bucknell in her article A Brief History of the Color Pink explains pink has been a spectacular contradiction for masculinity and femininity. In Japan, the colour pick is associated with masculinity honouring slain Samurais whereas western cultures popularized pink in the eighteen-century fashion scene within the pastel-loving bourgeoisie. The art world brought pink to the forefront starting with the French Impressionists and Neo-Impressionist movements (such as Claude Monet’s lilies and Edgar Degas’s dancers). In the 1960’s pop art took pink to the next level with artists like Andy Warhol (with his famous Marilyn Monroe). From there we saw pink move towards a vibrant neon-soaked 90s, to finally to a subdued Millennial pink that speaks to a more emotionally connected and tolerant society.

 

Tickled Pink

Pink is known as the happy colour. Think about cotton candy and bubble-gum— pure delights.

The psychology of the colour pink is firmly rooted in the perception that pink is a feminine colour that connotes nurture, care, calmness, romance and hope. Marketing has definitely played a role in portraying pink as a “girly” colour.

Intensify the colour to a hot vibrant pink and the psychological properties shift the tonality to youthful, energetic, sexy and fun. The range of moods and feeling pink can portray are vast and can quickly define gender and/or personality.

T-Mobile uses hot pink (magenta) to help differentiate their brand from the big competitors (AT&T and Verizon) and set an irreverent brand tone. In 2012, John Legere joined T-Mobile as CEO, who created a new brand around the colour of pink transforming the company to be more energetic, youthful and cooler. He must have done more than introduce hot pink to successful motivate his employees to proudly wear their shocking magenta uniforms every-day.  This brand transformation has been a large part of T-Mobile’s successful turnaround from a $29 billion in sales and negative $6 billion revenue loss to, today, a $51 billion in sales and positive revenue over $4 billion. In 2014 T-Mobile was successful in shutting out AT&T subsidiary from trying to use a similar magenta colour by trademarking theirs— feisty true colours.

 

Pretty in Pink

Associating baby boys with blue and baby girls with pink is a relatively new trend says Jo B. Paoletti, author of Pink and Blue: Telling the Girls From the Boys in America. She said the gender-code between pink and blue was firmly drawn in western societies in the early 1980s thanks to branding and marketers such as Care Bear, Barbie, Hello Kitty, and many Disney princesses. Pink became the leading colour to define pretty little girl’s materialistic world of glitter and fairy tales.

In 2011, Forbes reported that Disney Princess franchise made $1.6 billion (US) in North American retail sales and $3 billion globally. Making it the best-seller beating Star Wars, Sesame Street and superheroes. Pink power prevails.

The colour pink doesn’t stop with infants and young girls. Victoria Secret has successfully used the colour pink for over 40 years to build a lingerie empire of over $8 billion US (2015) in world-wide sales. In 2002, Victoria Secret introduced the PINK brand to attract high school and college-age girls to purchase causal loungewear a step down from the sexy lingerie.

 

Despite this pink persuasion, I have found no conclusive scientific evidence that gender-coded pink influences women more than men nor does it have any effect on human behavior. JR Thorpe stated in her article, Why Are We So Obsessed With Millennial Pink? There’s A Scientific Explanation For Everything, that there is sufficient “evidence that we do seem to view pinks in a positive light in some situations, likely as a result of cultural programming.”

Post World War II every home had some sort of pink household products based on targeting women who were entering into the work-force and started drawing a paycheque (thanks to the war). Remember grandma’s pink bathroom complete with pink doilies? As Jennifer Wright says in her article How Pink Became a Color for Girls, if a lady “tells you that her favorite color is “pink!” she might be telling you that she wants to be dainty and demure and stay at home. Or she might just be a badass who’s trying not to scare you too much.”  Does this mean that intrinsically women are influenced by pink to some degree, due to generational exposure or a desire to be part of something bigger?

 

The Politics of Pink

While the colour of pink has been associated with passive, innocent and girly. As an advocacy colour pink has been fierce and powerful, loaded with pride and strength.

The pink triangle was associated with the gay liberation movement but its original creation was far more evil as it was used by the Nazi’s to identity homosexual prisoners in concentration camps.

In 1991, the Susan G. Komen Foundation gave pink ribbons to runners in its New York breast cancer survivor race. The following year, the pink ribbon became the official—now ubiquitous—symbol of Breast Cancer Awareness Month.

In both cases, the pink colour is used to communicate active defiance and empowerment. Many feminist groups have adopted the colour pink as a sign of strength and pride in the mission towards equality and opportunity.

The pink ribbon Breast Cancer Awareness Month is an excellent example of using the gender-coded colour pink to their advantage to promote awareness and increase early detection of breast cancer. Some people would argue that the pinkification of breast cancer has turned a horrible disease into a brand that has been commodified by other brands for their own profits. That being said, the BreastCancer.org estimate that “about 40,610 women in the U.S. are expected to die in 2017 from breast cancer, though death rates have been decreasing since 1989. Women under 50 have experienced larger decreases. These decreases are thought to be the result of treatment advances, earlier detection through screening, and increased awareness.” I wasn’t able to find any awareness statistics on the pink ribbon campaign but I would guess it would be highest among the many ribbon campaigns that exist today.

 

For Pink Sake

Then there are those brands that don’t care about the gender-coding or personality traits of the colour pink. They just want a colour that will clearly differentiate them from the competitive pack.

Owens-Corning is one of those companies who introduced their Pink Fiberglas insulation into the market over 50 years ago. In 1980 they introduced the Pink Panther as their mascot in all of their marketing to accentuate their pinkness and likable pink personality. Since introducing the Pink Panther customers prefer pink insulation by a ratio of seven to one over the closet competition, as revealed in a Owens-Corning study done in the late 1990s. They were also one of the first company to successful trademark their colour against competition. Mr. Smith, Head of Marketing says, “We are fortunate. We have a trademark color that is up there with Coke red.” In his dreams!

In 1893, the Financial Times went from a generic white paper newspaper to a shade of salmon-pink which immediately distinguish it from all the competition. Why pink? It was cheaper to dye it pink than dying it white. Today, the opposite is true but as readers’ transition to the online version the colour is more about tradition than attracting attention on a dying newsstand.

 

Millennial Pink

Millennial Pink, also known as the Tumblr Pink or Scandinavian Pink (check out Pinterest), is the politically correct colour that has appeared in shades of beige with a touch of blush to a pleasing peach-salmon. This gender-neutral, androgynous colour is growing in popularity since it first appeared in 2012. You can find it in restaurants interiors, furniture, household products, clothing for both men and women, hair tints, drinks, rose-gold iPhones, and Drake’s album cover Hotline Bling, to name a few.

“Millennials are increasingly redefining what it means to be a grown-up in a seriously troubled world,” explains JR Thorpe. “Sometimes, we all want to be soothed — and what better way to do that than looking at Instagrams of a mid-century modern pink velvet settee.” May I suggest that they use the pinky velvet Pepto-Bismol, a better solution to sooth their tummies.

I predict there will be a few digital gender-neutral brands that will be utilizing this colour soon. Two brands that have embraced this restrained colour so far are Acne Studios clothing retailer and Thinx, a period-proof underwear company.

 

Pinked Out

No question, pink is a strong colour to build a brand, but you must understand the connection you are trying to build with the colour. You can’t ignore the historical gender connection that pink has in defining or promoting femininity (both good and bad). Maybe Millennial Pink will making pink less about gender and more about how it makes you feel.  But until then, as hip-hop rapper Talib Kweli said “women are complex creatures.” I think the colour pink is just as complex.

However, many any brands have successfully broken away from the competitive crowd using the colour of pink and more new brands will do the same.

 

Check out “Does the Colour of a Brand Really Matter

 

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The Best 2017 Brand Campaigns

It’s that time of the year when marketing and branding experts determine which campaigns should be recognized as the best for 2017. For your convenience I have searched the internet for the “Best Lists” from such experts as Adweek, Marketingweek, Spredfast, Digital Marketing Institute, Brandwatch, AdAge and Forbes Agency Council.

My analysis isn’t terrible scientific as most of the lists are wildly subjective. Looking across the lists there are only a few campaigns that get repeated nominations among the experts. There was five campaigns that stood out above the rest.

Purpose over Profits

A common theme among many of these campaigns was a focus on a higher purpose and less about selling their brand. Many are recognizable brands that have successfully tapped into the global anxiety of uncertainty and unrest. A world without a clear future. There is a serious tone in all of these campaigns void of any humour except for Halo Top`s (The Perfect Pint) campaign.

Desire to Engage

These campaigned aren`t about a 30 second television commercial but a fully integrated campaign with social engagements in the millions that reached beyond most expectations. The secret ingredient in all of these campaigns was the social buzz or fire that they all created both positive and negative. A true sign of a campaign that matters.

Enjoy and have a very happy and prosperous New Year.

 

Top Five Brand Campaigns

 

1. Heineken – Worlds Apart #OpenYourWorld

This campaign resonated with a number of the experts. And I don`t disagree. I found this real-life social experiment riveting. Heineken brought together people from opposite ends of the spectrum and put them into various team-building activities, before unveiling their strong conflicting viewpoints. They then had the choice to share a Heineken and discuss their differences or leave the room. I won`t spoil the ending.

Heineken received plenty of free publicity including some negative backlash but they also saw sales volume increase 3.9% in the first half of 2017. The 4:25 minute video on Youtube has received over 14.6 million views so far.

 

2. The New York Times – The Truth is Hard to Find

Today, the newspaper business isn’t a happy place. If it’s not Donald Trump threatening journalism, it’s overall declining revenues. The New York Times launched a campaign to declare why journalism matters and its role in holding power accountable and ultimately delivering the truth (most of the time).

The YouTube commercial has over 15.7 million views since it first aired on the Academy Awards in February. But more importantly The New York Times has seen a record level of digital subscribers of over 300 thousand in the first quarter of 2017.

 

3. State Street Global Advisors – Fearless Girl

On March 7th  a small girl of just 4 feet appeared before the iconic Charging Bull in the heart of New York`s financial district which stands at 11 feet. The day before International Women’s Day. Courageously she stands in deviance against the beast that represents male capitalism.

Sculpted by Kristen Visbal, the girl statue was commissioned by agency McCann New York for State Street Global Advisors (SSGA) to symbolise the power of women in leadership. Planting this meek girl statue of 250 pounds against the beast of 7,100 pounds created an instant global media storm. Like any visceral campaign it comes with its detractors including a $5 million lawsuit settlement against parent company State Corp. for alleging it underpaid women and minorities. (Best to have your own house in order before you start pointing fingers as others!)

Fearless Girl won 18 Cannes Lions awards, including the Titanium Grand Prix in the Glass Lions, which honours marketing creativity that transcends traditional categories such as media, film or radio. It was also praised by the jury for advocating gender equality.

 

4. Halo Top – “The Perfect Pint” or “Eat The Ice Cream” (experts couldn’t agree on one)

AdAge describes Halo Top ice cream brand as a “consumer-driven brand based on a quality product, evangelical consumers and clever, grassroots marketing…” This young five year old company has built its brand on a focused social media strategy surpassing the ice cream giants of Ben & Jerry`s and Häagen-Daazs.  They are a true threat to the established brands with sales increases of over 2,500 percent in 2016 and 1,656 percent in the 52 weeks ended Nov. 5, to nearly $298.6 million, according to IRI, a Chicago-based market research firm. “The perfect Pint” was the first traditional campaign they launched just prior to Fourth of July holiday. This video has garnered over 14.4 million views since release.

More recently they launched a longer-format spot for theatre and online advertising. Tim Nudd, creative editor at Adweek describes the spot as a “grimly amusing, Kubrick-esque robot apocalypse” perfect as a horror-movie trailer. Halo Top Founder and CEO Justin Woolverton said his brand had “never done anything this off-the-wall before.”

The sales would indicate a double hitter but the jury is this out on understanding where the brand image is really going.

 

5. Nike – #Breaking2

Nike is a brand that urges its customers to push their limits, and this campaign does this in spades.

Nike sponsored and challenged three athletes: Lelisa Desisa, Eliud Kipchoge and Zersenay Tadese to run the first sub two-hour marathon wearing Nike`s new Zoom Vaporfly Elite racing shoe. The event took place at the Formula 1 racetrack in Monza, Italy on May 6th and was live-streamed on social media.

Nike also partnered with National Geographic to produce the Breaking2, a 55 minute documentary that has 1.5 million views. Unfortunately, Kenya’s Olympic champion marathoner Eliud Kipchoge missed the goal by just :25 seconds. Despite not beating the two-hour mark, #Breaking2 was a PR success, receiving worldwide media coverage generating almost 85,000 mentions on social media in two days.

 

Honourable Mention

  1. IKEA – Augmented reality app: Ikea Place
  2. Wendy`s – #NuggsForCarter (winner of four 2017 Cannes Lions awards)
  3. Airbnb – Super Bowl ad titled “We Accept”
  4. Heinz – Pass the Heinz a campaign directly from Madmen
  5. Patagonia`s – Brand activism in protecting public land

 

What was your most memorable 2017 brand campaign?

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Simple Brands Are Simply Better

As the world gets more complex and more difficult to navigate consumers are attracted to brands that portray and provide simple solutions. Brand simplification is easier said than done but the financial incentive is significant. Siegel+Gale, a global brand strategy consultants, does an annual survey to monitor global brands simplicity with states that 64% of consumers are willing to pay more for simpler experiences. Their study also concludes that simple brands enjoy increased revenue, stock valuation, brand advocacy and employee engagement. Companies must look at everything their brand projects within the lens of simplicity, from the purchase process to packaging to customer interactions to product usage to communications and marketing.

 

Simple Brands means a Convenient Brand

Ideally you want your product precisely where and when the customer most wants it. This is the point where they are willing to pay the most and will be the most loyal. Imagine you are in the hot dessert with the temperature hovering around 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Stinking hot! The sun baking your face and your mouth feels like sandpaper. You are dying for an ice-cold drink. You see a Coke vending machine ahead of you. You can tell it’s working hard to keep its contents cold as water is collecting on the outside of the machine. How much would you pay for that bottle of Coke to quench your thirst? A lot! In 2010, Coca-Cola Company estimated there were more than 6.9 million vending machines in the United States.  Why so many? Convenience means more impulse sales and a higher value for the product. That’s why Best Buy, with an online and brick-and-mortar strategy also provides smaller mobile stores and vending machine, to deliver the right products in the right place. There are times I would have paid dearly for a phone charger.

 

Simple Brands means a Faster Brand

Jeff Bezos, CEO of Amazon, always talks of keeping his company in a continuous Day 1 state, both physically and mentally. He says, “To keep the energy and dynamism of Day 1, you have to somehow make high-quality, high-velocity decisions. Easy for start-ups and very challenging for large organizations.” Bezos says to survive in today’s world brands must “embrace powerful trends quickly.” To make this happen organization must be able to make decisions quickly without all the answers. Customers also want brands to react and fulfill promises with speed, like Amazon Prime and 1-Click.

Netflix is also recognised as one of the top simple brands by the Global Brand Simplicity Index, as they provide customers with entertainment anytime, anywhere, instantly. This brand went quickly from DVD movie distribution to streaming.

Simple Brands means a Brand for Dummies

Statista, the statistics portal, states Netflix had 109.25 million streaming subscribers worldwide in the third quarter of 2017. Of these subscribers, 52.77 million were from the United States. In less than a few clicks you can escape from reality to any genre, a task which even a three year old can accomplish. Netflix CEO Reed Hastings says the battle-tested KISS principle holds a ton of power at the Netflix headquarters. He says over the years they have figured out “that people really love simplicity.”  The end game is successful brands don’t make customers think they just make them happy.

 

Simple Brands means a Focused Brand

Apple is passionate about creating a simple, focused brand. Tim Cook, CEO of Apple, said, “This is the most focused company I know of… We say no to good ideas every day so that the company can keep its focus on a small number of areas.” Jeremy Miller, author of Sticky Branding says successful simple brands can be described in 10 words or less. Can you describe what makes your brand unique in 10 or less words?

No surprise, Google has been in the top 10 ranking for the last eight years Siegel+Gale began publishing its Global Brand Simplicity Index. That means Google needs to satisfactorily answer over 63,000 search queries every second (or 5.5 billion searches per day or 2 trillion searches per year) world-wide. No pressure.

“A simple design is like telling a compelling story with as few words as possible” explains Art Director Bianca Magna at Banfield advertising agency. This is true for packaging, website and online applications and advertising.

The eco-friendly Ikea has been recognised for its “minimalist” designs in its variety of products and memorable brand advertising. True to its brand Ikea has “simplicity” as one of its key values stating “It is about being ourselves and staying close to reality…and see bureaucracy as our biggest enemy.” However, assembling some of the Ikea furniture might require an engineering degree if you can’t understand the pictorial instructions.

 

Simple Brands means a Successful Brand

Successful and sustainable brands have one common promise – they make life simple. Simple brands are the furthest away from being a simple businesses. In the eyes of the consumer these are beautifully designed, understated brands that come with powerful benefits. These brands take complex, complicated technology, processes and algorithms and turn them into simple customer interfaces that look effortless and simple. Their business operations are state-of-the-art, their employees are focused on what matters and their understanding of their customers is paramount.

Achieving simplicity is not simple. But the brands that harness its power stand to reap a multitude of both reputational and financial rewards.

 

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Mind over Mouth – How Brands Go Beyond The Tongue

Where does the taste of a brand fit? You guessed it, in the mouth. But even if your brand can’t fit into your customer’s mouth, this article may still provide you with wisdom about this unique portal to human consumption. The taste of any brand is more about what you think a brand is than what you think you experience.  Hold that thought as we move on.

The Tongue

The tongue does all the heavy lifting. If it’s not busy articulating a verb or noun, it’s busy moving food and drink around in our mouth. The tongue has over 10,000 taste buds (the little bumps on your tongue) which helps distinguish between sweet, sour, salty, bitter and savory (also known as umami). On its own, it can only decipher basic elements of taste. But to realize its full potential, it requires other senses like smell, texture and temperature. Taste is really the summation of the tongue and nose (if not influenced by our eyes), which our brain connects, and leads our emotional unity to our experience. This is the sweet spot where we know, in branding, is ripe for manipulation and trickery.

Howard Moskowitz once said, “the mind knows not what the tongue wants.” And Moskowitz should know, as a well-known market researcher and psychophysicist. He was made famous by author Malcolm Gladwell in his New Yorker article titled “The Ketchup Conundrum” and his TedTalk called “Choice, happiness and spaghetti sauce.” A perfect video to watch on a Friday night. Gladwell recounts Moskowitz reinventing spaghetti sauce through his research where he discovered there were three main sauces: plain, spicy and extra chucky. The market place only offered plain and spicy spaghetti sauce at the time. Moskowitz’s customer, Campbell Soup Kitchen, used this information and introduced Prego extra chucky spaghetti sauce that made over $600 million in the first 10 years. Moskowitz certainly understood the secret to that sauce.

Taste Test

The most memorable and successful taste test was the legendary Pepsi Challenge, which started in 1975. This simple tactic put Pepsi on the map and kicked Coca Cola off their game with their introduction of the New Coke blunder. Years after, scientist continued to ponder what role taste has in building a brand.

While we believe the ultimate criteria for liking a drink or food is its taste, we are certainly influenced throughout the brand experience by extrinsic cues like packaging, labels, the brand story, the environmental situation, as well as the intrinsic product attributes, like texture, smell, appearance and perceived quality (price).

In a 2013 blind taste test research study between Coke and Pepsi conducted by Dr. N. Ramanjaneyalu, C. Asangi and V. Kadabi at Karnatak University in India, found that only 37% of respondents could successfully identify Coca Cola through taste or a lucky guess. They concluded that building the right brand image and positioning is just as important as the taste.

The Brain

Malcolm Gladwell, in his book Blink, echoes a similar conclusion where he explains that people prefer a sweeter drink (characteristics of Pepsi) in a sip test but generally not necessarily in glass size. He also goes on to talk about the importance of “sensation transference,” a phrase coined by scientific researcher Louis Cheskin, who said people’s perceptions and emotional attachments to the aesthetics of the product goes beyond just the taste of the product.

Neuroscientists Lauren Atlas and Tor Wager’s research on cognitive neuroscience concluded that expectations and beliefs play a pervasive role in the workings of the brain. What this means is expectations can influence those things we are knowingly aware of, like our loyalty and familiarity to a brand. Consciously and unconsciously we are collecting information and analyzing our surroundings and assessing what we think we like and don’t like.

 

Tasteless

Gil Morrot, a wine researcher at the National Institute for Agronomic Research in Montpellier, found that the simple act of adding an odorless red dye to a glass of white wine was able to fool a panel of tasters, who later described the wine as a true red wine with tasting notes of cherry, dark fruit and cedar.

It’s no surprise that the top five beer manufactures in US spent approximately $1.6 billion in advertising in 2016, especially if beer preference is not driven completely by taste. Bottle water is another great example of brand-first, tasteless-water second. (Check out my article The Power of a Brand).

In a study conducted at Stanford and Johns Hopkins, their researchers tested the effect of branding on taste preferences in young children. The 95 children aged 3-5 were given identical food, except one choice came in McDonald’s packaging and the other was in plain-white packaging. All of the food came from McDonald’s, except for the carrots. Which one do you think the kids liked best? No brainer. McDonald’s was chosen hands-down, including the carrots that they don’t actually sell. Interesting to also note that the preferences for the McDonald’s branded food increased with both the frequency of McDonald’s consumption and the number of TV sets in the home of each kid.

Taste Matters

I remember the day McDonald’s coffee tasted like merde! (pardon my French). In 2006, McDonald’s upgraded is coffee from a generic, non-descript coffee, to a darker-roast, Arabica, premium coffee they called “Full Bean Coffee.” I recall people walking into the office at the time with their extra-large McDonald’s to-go-cup saying the coffee tasted great, even better than Tim Hortons. They were happy they saved cash and got a free muffin on the side. This was the start of the coffee wars with Starbucks. Within a year McDonald’s coffee sales climbed 20% in a market where coffee sales are over $30 billion. During that time they gave away a lot of free coffee. Why? To demonstrate that their coffee did taste great because taste does matter.

Taste is one of the most important factors influencing consumers’ preference for choosing one food and beverage brand over another. But we should not be so naïve to think that taste is the only discerning factor unless, its Heinz’s ketchup—the perfectly balanced condiment with the right amount of tangy sweet tomato and salty goodness, with pleasant sour notes and a buttery umami finish. Even with a 62% market share lead in US (84% in Canada) this brand doesn’t rely only on taste. The Heinz brands spent approximately $530 million on advertising in 2013, including securing a Heinz’s ketchup ad in the 2016 Super Bowl (which isn’t cheap). Most recently Heinz‘s ketchup launched a brilliant advertising campaign inspired (actually a complete rip-off) from a Mad Men episode.

Final Tasting Notes

We understand the mouth’s role within our complex sensory system. It’s integral in how we interpret taste, and also how we define our likes and dislikes. We also know it has its limitations, and in the end, is overruled by our brain’s desire to bring it all together.  So when positioning a brand that has strong oral opportunity, we can’t put all the pressure on the tongue to carry us through. By ensuring multiple sensory stimulation, only then will the tongue feel affirmation in what it’s experiencing. Now how you choose to influence this experience will leave your brand tasting bitter or sweet.

 

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A Brand with Feelings

“I’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.”

Maya Angelou

 

Maya Angelou’s life lesson is something we have the pleasure of taking solace in, and it’s what inspired looking at brands with feelings.  She understood the power of emotion with an audience, and I’ve dug a little deeper in this article to further articulate the ways brands can use emotion to build deeper customer relationships.

 

There are 8 basic emotions – which ones does your brand focus on?

It seems that the subject of determining how many emotions there are was started way back in the 4th century B.C. by the philosopher Aristotle, and explored much later by Charles Darwin. Most recently psychologists have concluded that there are anywhere from four to eight basic emotions.

In 1978 Dr. Paul Ekman, with the help of W. Friesen, developed the first and only comprehensive tool for objectively measuring facial movement – the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Since then there have been over 70 others studies confirming the same set of results of seven universal facial expressions of emotions – anger, contempt, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise.

Psychologist Robert Plutchik developed the famous wheel of emotions which identifies eight basic emotions – joy, sadness, trust, disgust, fear, anger, surprise, and anticipation. His theory starts with these basic emotions then blossoms out to multiply variations creating a wide spectrum of emotions with opposing relationships.

Kendra Cherry author of Everything Psychology Book said, “The basic emotions, however many there really are, serve as the foundation for all the more complex and subtle emotions that make up the human experience.” There is some compelling evidence that shows consumers use emotions rather than information to evaluate brands. Emotions also create deeper and more visceral impressions that have impact on long-term memory.

Emotions are complex but for the purpose of building a brand based on feelings, we used Plutchik’s eight basic emotions.

 

Negative Emotions

Most companies try to stay clear of associating their brand to negative emotions. But some brands have been very successful in differentiating their brand with the contentious emotions of disgust, sadness, anger and fear.

 

Disgust

Disturbing graphic images on cigarette packs is a great example of using disgust to build the brand of anti-smoking. Gone are the days of the iconic Marlboro man, the ultimate American masculine cowboy brand, which drove Marlboro to the number one tobacco brand in the world. I have read that several actors who portrayed the Marlboro man over the years have rode off into the sunset prematurely due to smoking-related diseases–talk about disgusting. Dr. Ellen Peters, who conducted a research study on the effectiveness of smoking warning labels and graphic images with 244 smokers, says, “The images definitely did stir their emotions, but those emotions led them to think more carefully about the risks of smoking and how those risks affected them.”

Another brand that serves up a spoon of disgust is the famous Canadian cough medicine Buckley’s with the slogan “It tastes awful. And it works.”

But the most disgusting advertising for a brand has to go to OXY Face Wash with their series of zit popping videos. Say no more, the images speak for themselves!

 

Sadness

Is sadness the new happy? Does it leave a mark deeper than joy? Making people cry seems to be many brand’s objective these days. Take a look at all the holiday epic stories of lonely and sad people. The U.K. retailer brand John Lewis is built on pulling consumers’ heartstrings. But some would say that we can’t be happy all of the time so there is an authenticity in trying to get to a deeper brand engagement. Several insurance companies have cornered the market for ‘sad-vertising’ such as Thai Life Insurance (Unsung Hero), MetLife (My dad’s story) and Nationwide (Dead Boy).

 

 

Anger

Making people mad to buy a brand seems counterproductive but it is used to create an action or to make a strong statement. If you want to change a perception or get people to take action, anger can be a very persuasive tool. Generally, we feel angry when we see a person or a helpless animal hurt, or a major injustice being enacted.

Sadly, terrorist groups like ISIS have used this emotion effectively to build their brand. “They’re very good at branding,” said J.M. Berger, co-author of the book ISIS: The State of Terror. They have a complete visual look with a black flag, distinctive clothing, black masks and identical weapons. They use brutal violence against innocent people and public executions to generate widespread anger which also appeals to a small niche of supporters who want to take up their cause.

 

After the Great Recession, many brands tried to take advantage of frustrated and angry consumers affected by hard times by emulating further antagonism. Eastman Kodak did a rant about overpriced inkjet printer ink (I actually purchased a Kodak printer based on this fact). Post’s Shredded Wheat Cereal declared “Innovation is not your friend,” Miller High Life showed their support towards blue-collar customers and Harley-Davidson condemned “The stink of greed and billion-dollar bankruptcies” to align with their customers.

 

 

The most unique brand campaign I have seen that successfully angered its target audience was a simple billboard advertising that said: TEXT AND DRIVE with the company logo Wathan Funeral Home. The outraged and upset viewers went to the funeral home’s website to voice their angry but were surprised to find that it was a PSA to get people to stop texting and driving. Angry with a happy ending.

 

 

Fear

Every brand has a call to action and in many cases, depicts a sense of urgency to respond. But brands would tend to prefer a positive experience and keep as far away from risk as possible. But there are brands who thrive with their use of fear, like Greenpeace. They have been effective in shutting down major projects and changing their prey’s business practices by way of fear mongering. They take mere possibilities and translate them into fearful statements, such as “Our health is threatened by climate change. Malaria, asthma, encephalitis, tuberculosis, leprosy, dengue fever and measles are all expected to become more common.”

 

 

President Donald Trump’s success is attributed to building his brand on fear. Alex Altmen, a Washington correspondent for TIME magazine said, “No President has weaponized fear quite like Trump. He is an expert at playing to the public’s phobias.” Barry Glassner, a sociologist at Lewis & Clark College and the author of The Culture of Fear, says Trump “is a master” at creating fear. “His formula is very clean and uncomplicated: Be very, very afraid,” says Glassner. I repeat be very afraid.

A study published in the Journal of Consumer Research demonstrated that consumers who experienced fear while watching a film felt a greater affiliation with a present brand than those who watched films evoking other emotions, like happiness, sadness or excitement. I believe this goes back to our basic instincts of survival.

So you see how negative emotions can successfully build a brand, but caution cannot be underscored enough. Graeme Newell, marketing consultant, speaker, and founder of 602 Communications says negative emotions can be a powerful tool to elevate a brand’s message, as long as they’re not delivered too bluntly and you must leave the audience with a positive takeaway. Greenpeace’s continuous use of fear has lost some value over time and has created its own challenges. How long can you cry “wolf” to get people to mobilize your brand?

 

Positive Emotions

As character Don Draper said in a Mad Men episode, “Advertising is based on one thing: happiness.” This is the territory many brands navigate using the emotions of joy, trust, surprise and anticipation.

 

Trust

Without trust the financial industry doesn’t work. In essence a five dollar bill or hundred dollar bill is the same simple piece of paper with different numbers on them, but the buying power is significantly different thanks to trust.  No surprise that the business and financial services industry needs trust to operate. Trust is integral to the success of all brands but foundational for those brands built on faith and intangible, complex components.

Generally, the emotion of trust becomes super important for a brand if it has broken this bond with the customer. I am sure VW, Toyota, and BP are working on this emotion extensively today.

In the UK’s 2015 Consumer Trust in Brands report, they state that food brands have one of the highest trust levels—its important to have repeat customers who aren’t sick or dying from eating your product. That is exactly what happened with Maple Leaf Foods Inc. in 2008, when they produced listeria tainted luncheon meats that killed 22 people and sickened 35 others. Sales were immediately hit by a 50% decrease but was only down 15% two months later.

“The very first thing that must happen in these incidents is acknowledgment, apologies, and action from the CEO,” says Hamish McLennan, CEO of Young & Rubicam. Maple Leaf Foods CEO Michael McCain felt the company’s transparency and immediate reaction in taking responsibility for the crisis helped win back customers. Morgen Witzel’s article, Maple Leaf Food’s response to a crisis, states, “The trust built in the days after the onset of the crisis laid the foundation for its eventual turnaround.” Today, I don’t think there is any trust issue facing Maple Leaf Foods thanks to Mr. McCain’s conviction to making things right and not listening to his lawyers.

Humanizing your brand helps build trust but you must foster an authentic and lasting connection with your customers to get there.

 

Joy

What brand do you immediately think of when you hear the word “joy”? Think of joy as a sudden burst of happiness on a high. Does “Joy in every bottle” ring a bell?

 

 

Most people are always on a quest to experience more joy in their lives and looking for those small indulgences of pleasure. Many brands have found the sweet spot, such as Starbucks, McDonald’s, Campbell’s Soup, Kraft Mac & Cheese, Zappos, Facebook – “likes”, and Ferrero Rocher chocolates to name a few.

 

Surprise

A pleasant surprise is always appreciated by consumers and can be leveraged across all consumer touch points (social, events, in-store, advertising, mobile, etc.).

In a social listening study conducted by DraftFCB (now known as FCB or Foote, Cone & Belding), using W. Gerrod Parrott of Georgetown University’s emotional framework (Anger, Love, Sorrow, Joy, Fear, and Surprise), they found “surprise” as a distant sixth place in association with brands. So there is room for brand differentiation in using this emotion.

MasterCard has been running their “Priceless” campaign for over 17 years  and in 2014 they introduced “Priceless Surprises” with the goal of surprising cardholders when they least expect it. For example meeting Justin Timberlake, Gwen Stefani or VIP tickets to special events. There is a strong emotional element in watching a fan connect with a star and MasterCard #PricelessSurprises made it happen. Raja Rajamannar, CMO of MasterCard said, “The success of Priceless is driven by the campaign’s ability to create emotion, influence behavior, unite people and touch upon consumer passions.” Their website says that over 97,867 cardholders have experienced a surprise so far. I’m still waiting for a surprise that doesn’t include 18% when I check my credit card bill!

 

GoPro on a smaller scale had a campaign called “Everything We Make Giveaway” where every day one person wins everything they make. In the last five years they have given away 1,500 cameras and $4 million of GoPro gear. Don’t get too excited this campaign is no longer on.

For the last five years WestJet Airlines has implemented their “Christmas Miracle” by surprising a select group of customers or potential customers. In 2016, they surprised the residents of Fort McMurray, Alberta who were impacted by the devastating wildfires with a special “Snowflake Soiree”. Everyone who attended was given a free WestJet ticket.

 

Anticipation

I am sure you have been anxiously anticipating this last emotion. Researchers have found that people experience more intense emotions around anticipating future events/opportunities than remembering those in the past.  Booking a holiday is a great example of a positive and powerful emotion as a person waits for the exciting trip. High-end cruise liners have perfected the art of creating excitement with cruise planners and special updates prior to embarking.

Sandals Resorts understand the importance of anticipation with their beautifully stunning, natural blue and turquoise oceans and clear sky images, but more importantly, keeping the excitement growing with their social media activities. Tiffany Mullins, Social Media Manager says the Sandals Resorts “strategy is to evoke an emotion with every single social media post.” Not only are they humanizing the brand but their social media presence is creating a virtual vacation experience in advance of the actual vacation. Brilliant.

The Apple brand is an expert on contemplating the future and having their customers emotionally engaged beyond their current technology and living in anticipation of the next generation, like the iPhone 8 soon to be released. Each version is a stepping stone to further deepen the brand loyalty or cult-like following.  Apple is notorious for their pre-launch hype, limited availability, reorders and long lineups on launch day, only to be repeated again within another 12 – 18 months. Here we go again.

 

Emotional Branding

Harvard Business School professor Gerald Zaltman says that 95% of our purchase decision making takes place in the subconscious mind, a place where emotions are king. If you are going to engage in emotional branding, understand how and where you want to connect to your customers so you can consistently build on every touchpoint.

As William Gelner, Chief Creative Officer of 180 explains, “We live such digitally switched-on, always-plugged-in lives, and yet we still also somehow feel disconnected from people. As human beings, we’re looking for true human connection, and I think that emotional storytelling can help bridge that gap.”

Pick your emotion(s) and start building your emotional brand story today, every step of the way.